The Freedom Riders were Civil Rights Activist who rode buses into the segregated southern United States in 1961. The Rides were mostly sponsored by CORE and were met with mobs of white people in the south who were protesting against the freedom rides. These rides happened after segregated buses were declared unconstitutional, and what they were doing was legal. Some states, however, did not enforce this law, especially in the south. In some southern states, the police even allowed angry white mobs to attack the buses and did not interfere. The freedom riders made a large impact on the Civil Rights Movement and racism as a whole.
The Nation of Islam was founded in 1930 to improve the social, spritual, and economic conditions of Black people. Some people accuse it of being a Black Supremacist group and also of being antisemitic.
the watts riots was a severe 5 day riot that occurred due to the 2nd great migration of 1950s
the five-day riot resulted in 34 deaths, 1,032 injuries, 3,438 arrests, and over $40 million in property damage.
Bloody Sunday was the marches from Selma to Montgomery on March 17, 1965. The marchers were attacked with billie clubs and tear gas by state and local police.
The Greensboro sit-ins were a series of nonviolent protests in 1960 which led to the Woolworths department store chain reversing its policy of racial segregation in the Southern United States.
Malcolm X Assassination
Malcolm X was a symbol of the freedom of the African Americans and the Black Power Movement. He was assassinated at the Audubon Ballroom by a man in the crowd. He was preparing to give a speech to a crowd of about 400 people. The assassination happened on February 21,1965, by Black Muslims because he spoke against the NOI. The assassination was met with mixed reactions, and was a great loss to the civil rights movement.
The Montgomery Bus Boycott
The bus boycott was when African Americans refused to ride buses in Montgomery on December 1, 1955 until Dec 20, 1956. The boycott lasted 381 days. The boycott started when Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on the bus for a white person. Martin Luther King Jr. was a prominent figure in the boycotts. The boycotts ended when a law was passed declaring the laws that segregated buses unconstitutional.
The Black Panthers are an African American socialist organization. It was founded in 1966, and supports Black Power. They were very violent and believed that violence will win them equality or even power. They also became an icon to the counterculture, which was a group of people who disagreed with the government and society as a whole. They were active until 1982, when ideological differences split the party.
Letter from Birmingham Jail
The letter from Birmingham Jail is a letter from Martin Luther King while he was in jail. The letter said that the protesters were breaking the law, but they were showing great moral and it was a start to larger protests.
Murder of Emmet Till
Emmet Till was a 14 year old boy who was beaten and killed for whistling to a white woman. He was killed on August 28, 1955. There is no evidence that he actually harmed the woman, but one white witness and the white family beat him to death. The family that beat him went to court, but were not faced with any charges.
The Freedom Summer in 1964 was a campaign to help register as many african american voters as possible in the state of Mississippi. Before, the state of Mississippi was known for not allowing blacks to vote.
Newark and Detroit Race Riots
The Newark and Detroit were one of the bloodiest and violent riots in American history. They happened between July 12 and July 17, 1967. The riots started with an unauthorized police officer arresting a black man and beating them in jail.
The kerner commission was created in 1967. It was created to investigate the cause of race riots during the civil rights movement.
The SCLC is a civil rights organization. It was created on January 10, 1957. It played a large role in the civil rights movement, and its first president was Martin Luther King Jr.
March on Washington for jobs and freedom
The march happened on august 19th, 1963. Martin Luther King Jr. delivered his famous "I Have A Dream" speech to all the protesters who were marching. more than 200,000 people marched in this protest.
Little Rock Nine
The little rock nine are a group of 9 African-American students who are enrolled at Little Rock High School. In 1957, They were not allowed in the high school because they were black, so they were escorted by the national guard.
The Southern Manifesto was a document written in February and March of 1956. It was signed by 99 politicians and it was made as an opposition to desegregation of public facilities.
Bombing of 16th Street Baptist Church
The bombing of 16th street baptist church occurred on September 15, 1963. It was an act of racially motivated terrorism, and it killed 4 young girls. The people who are thought to have bombed the church are members of the Ku Klux Klan.